Basalt is well known as rock found in virtually every country around the world. Its main use is as a crushed rock used in construction, industrial and highway engineering. However it is not commonly known that basalt can be used in manufacturing and made into fine, superfine and ultra fine fibers. Comprised of single-ingredient raw material melt, basalt fibers are superior to other fibers in terms of thermal stability, heat and sound insulation properties, vibration resistance and durability.
Basalt continuous fibers offer the prospect of a completely new range of composite materials and products.
Basalt products have no toxic re-action with air or water, are non-combustible and explosion proof. When in contact with other chemicals they produce no chemical reactions that may damage health or the environment. Basalt replace almost all applications of asbestos and has three times its heat insulation properties. Basalt based composites can replace steel and all known reinforced plastics (1 kg of basalt reinforcement equals 9.6 kg of steel). The life of basalt fiber pipes, designed for a variety of applications, is at least 50 years without maintenance or electrical or technical protection.
Basalt fibers together with carbon or ceramic fibers as well as various metals is the most advanced and exciting area of application, as they can develop new hybrid composite materials and technologies.
Basalt’s special properties reduces the cost of products whilst improving their performance. More than hundred specific unique manufacturing techniques using basalt fiber materials and products have been developed and patented in Russia.
In their physical properties (strength, elasticity) basalt fibers considerably exceed mineral and glass fibers.
Due the elasticity of micro- and macrostructure, basalt fibers are vibration-resistant compared to similar products. This property is of particular importance in mechanical construction and civil engineering. For example, when buildings are erected near highways, railways and underground, whereas under vibration cushions of mineral and glass fibers experience damage and finally disintegrate, basalt slabs are vibration-resistant and, hence, more durable.
In chemical properties basalt fibers are more resistant to aggressive media i. e. acids and alkalis. Therefore pipes made of basalt fibers may be used in the chemical production for transporting hot acids, in the construction of sewerage systems, transportation of aggressive liquids and gases, loose materials, etc.
Dielectric properties of basalt-plastics, in particular volume resistance of basalt fibers are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of fiberglass.
Basalt fibers can be used in various branches of industry fully replacing cancerous asbestos and to a considerable degree glass fibers and metals.
Comparison table of basalt fiber and glass fiber properties
Operating temperature, C
Verification temperature, C
Thermal conductivity, W/m.K
0,031 - 0,038
0,034 - 0,4
Diameter of fiber, mkm
Elasticity modulus, kg/mm²
Stability at tension (after thermal treatment), %
9 – 13
2500 – 2800
9100 – 11000
6 – 17
17 – 480
2540 – 2600
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF RAW FIBERS WITHOUT SIZING
% weight loss after boiling during 3 hours in
ELECTRICAL Specific volume electrical
Resistance , Ohm.m
Normal coefficient of sound absorption
0,9 – 0,99
0,8 – 0,93
- Basalt fibers are more resistant to the attack of aggressive mediums and steam in comparison with glass fibers.
- The specific volume resistance of basalt fiber is one degree higher.
- Basalt fabric do not accumulate radiation.
The processing technologies of basalt fiber conforms to traditional technologies of glass fiber processing (fabrics, roving, chopped strands, GFRP). Thanks to their excellent properties basalt fiber may be used for manufacturing of thermo and alkali resistant articles (tanks, pipes, GFRP, warm insulating materials) and as ecological harmless substitute for asbestos.
· Case and body parts.
· Heat-resistance body-containers.
· Completely incombustible thermal sound insulation for cabins, motor compartments, metro carriages, vessels and aircrafts.
· Electrotechnical and electronic circuit boards.
· Brake pads for automobiles, aircrafts, metro carriages and coaches.
· Friction disks for autotractor facilities.
· Frame sections.
· Reinforcement for industrial rubber and other articles.
· Acoustic systems and articles.
· Belts for heavy-loaded conveyers.
· Protection screens against electromagnetic radiation and information read-out.
· New generation body armor for individual and collective protection.
· Fireproofing and heat-protection working clothes.
· Containers for burial of extremely toxic waste.
· Basalt-carbon heaters for clothes, rooms, incubators etc.
· Reinforcement of bridges, tunnels.
· Production of sandwich-panels based on basalt and carbon-basalt fibers.
· External and internal heat and sound insulation.
· Insulation of panel butt joints.
· Directional and dispersive reinforcement of concrete.
· Repair (healing) of cracks, local damage to buildings, bridges, building constructions.
· Soft roofing (of slate and tile type).
· Reusable shutters.
· Internal waste pipes.
· Reinforced structures
· Heat-supply systems, cable conduits.
· Hydraulic construction.
· Reinforcement of concrete and asphalt pavements runways.
· Construction of sound-absorbing barriers for highways, railways, and underground metro lines.
· Curb stones, pavement linings (basalt casting).
· Small moulds.
· Pipelines for heating and hot water supply.
· Oil and gas pipelines.
· Cable-conduit, telephone systems protected against electromagnetic fields and information leakage through electronic surveillance.
· Highly efficient seals and linings for pipelines.
· Pipes for chemicals production and transportation of aggressive media.
· Pumps for aggressive media.
· Land drainage pipes.& Pipes for irrigation and hosing.
· Raising vegetables and seedlings (hydroponics) (Basalt superthin fibers).
· Agricultural construction. & Agricultural machine construction.
· Anchors, pillars, ceilings, vaults.
· Pipelines for various purposes.
· Foundations for buildings and constructions. Trenches laying of pipelines.
ROVING MADE FROM BASALT FIBER STRANDS
Roving may have the linear density from 120 up to 4800 tex, with elementary fiber diameter from 9 up to 13 mcm furnished with sizing “paraffin emulsion” or “4S”. In accordance with user’s request the roving may be treated with an other sizings.
Physical and mechanical properties
1. Specific breaking load, mN/tex (df/tex)
not less than for roving with elementary fiber diameter
2. Deviation from norm of elementary fiber diameter
3. Deviation from norm of linear density, %
(average relatively to nominal)
4. Humidity, % not more than
5. Loss on ignition, %
6. Weight of package
According to user’s request
Basalt roving may be used for production of BFRP, woven and non-woven materials of technical application, for reinforcement of plastics.
Basalt fabrics are produced for structural, electro technical, general and specialized purposes.
For structural uses, basalt fabrics are useful for producing structural basalt – plastics based on various thermosetting binders: exposy and phenolic polyesters (for instance by a laying – out method). From this materials components for automobiles, aircraft, ships and household appliances can be produced. In the case of preliminary metallization of the fabrics, the resulting basalt – plastic acquires shield properties against electromagnetic radiation.
Also, basalt fabrics can be used as a basis when producing soft and rigid roofing.
Basalt fabrics for electrotechnical purposes are used as a base for the production of insulation materials. Their properties are shown table. These materials are employed in the production of substrates for printed circuit boards for electronics and electrical engineering. These have superior properties to similar conventional components made of fiberglass.
General purpose fabrics are useful, for instance, in fire feltings for suppression of extremely complex fires resulting from ignition of highly inflammable liquids, in particular gasoline. The employment of incombustible basalt fabric inserts in industrial ventilators increases their fire safety as well as the fire resistance of ventilating systems.
The cost of basalt fabrics is considerably lower than that of similar materials.
The noncombustible properties of basalt woven materials enable it to resist flames for long periods which make basalt tapes effective as an extra fine – resistance insulation fer electric cables and underground ducts.
Basalt fabric hoses may be useful for reinforcing cables, repairing the interior and exterior of tubes and pipelines.
Physical and mechanical properties
Multifilament yarn (or strand) consist of elementary fibers diameter 9 – 13 mcm bonded together with sizing “paraffin emulsion”. In accordance with user’s request the strands may be furnished with an other sizing.
The production of basalt yarns with nominal linear density from 54 up to 140 tex and elementary fibers diameter from 9 up to 13 mcm has good perspectives.
Properties of asbestos and basalt yarns
Thermal resistance, °C
Melting temperature, °C
Breaking load for the yarn of 500 tex, N
at 20 °C
at 400 °C
at 500 °C
Loss in 25% solution of Na OH after 72 h.,w %
Loss in 37% solution of H Cl after 4 h.,w %